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Baldwin County

County Courthouse View large image

Source: David Seibert

Date Built1995-97
Architecture Style
DesignerBrittain, Thompson, Bray & Brown
Seat InformationIn June 1806, the Baldwin County's first court session was held in a log cabin in Hillsborough (a small settlement today located in Jasper County about 25 miles northwest of Milledgeville). In Dec. 1807, the legislature formed four new counties from portions of Baldwin County. The same month, the legislature designated Milledgeville county seat, since Hillsborough was now part of newly created Randolph County (later renamed Jasper County). Milledgeville was laid out to be Georgia's new state capital and first settled in 1803. Incorporated as a town on Dec. 8, 1806, Milledgeville as named for former governor John Milledge (1757-1818).
Courthouse DetailsBaldwin County's first courthouse was a log cabin owned by George Hill in the settlement of Hillsborough. Here, the first court session was held on June 26, 1806. In Dec. 1807, the legislature created four new counties from Baldwin, with Hillsborough transferred to newly created Randolph (later renamed Jasper) County. At the same session, the legislature designated Milledgeville as the new county seat of Baldwin County and authorized county court sessions to be held in the state capitol. On Dec. 22, 1808, the General Assembly authorized Baldwin County to levy a tax to build a courthouse on the southeast corner of Penetentiary Square. Until the courthouse could be erected, county court sessions were to be held in a rented house. Baldwin County's first real courthouse was completed in 1814 at a cost of $3,975. This building was used until replaced by a larger courthouse built on the same site in 1847. This courthouse burned in 1861, after which court sessions were held in the Georgia Capitol, the Milledgeville Opera House, and the local Masonic Hall. In 1883, the legislature authorized Baldwin County to borrow up to $25,000 to build four fireproof county offices, as well as a courthouse, on the site of the former courthouse. In 1885, work began on the new courthouse, which was completed in 1887. This courthouse was remodeled in 1937 and 1965. In 1990, planning began on a new courthouse. After local option sales tax referendums were approved in 1990 and 1992, construction of a new courthouse began in 1995 and was completed in 1997.
County Data
Population 200044,700
Population Growth2.3
County SeatMilledgeville
County Area267.5 Square Miles
Location MapBaldwin County Location Map

In 1802, the Creek Indians and U.S. commissioners signed the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, which ceded Creek lands in two different areas to Georgia. The northern cession involved land west of the Oconee River, which the legislature divided into two new counties, Baldwin and Wilkinson, on May 11, 1803. 

Georgia’s 29th county was named for Abraham Baldwin, one of Georgia’s two signers of the U.S. Constitution and founder of the University of Georgia. In 1805, the Creeks signed the Treaty of Washington, which extended Georgia westward to the Ocmulgee River. An act of June 26, 1806 added lands ceded by the Creeks to Baldwin and Wilkinson counties

On Dec. 10, 1807, the legislature divided Baldwin County into four new counties—Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and Randolph (which was renamed Jasper). In the same act, Baldwin County was given land east of the Oconee River from Hancock and Washington counties.

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Legal OrganThe Union Recorder
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Historical Population
2010 45,720
2000 44,700
1990 39,530
1980 34,686
1970 34,240
1960 34,064
1950 29,706
1940 24,190
1930 22,878
1920 19,791
1910 18,354
1900 17,768
1890 14,608
1880 13,806
1870 10,618
1860 9,078
1850 8,148
1840 7,250
1830 7,295
1820 7,734
1810 6,356