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1739 Yamacraw Indian chief Tomochichi died near Savannah. There is no record of the place or date of his birth, but as a Creek, he probably was born in present-day Georgia or Alabama. Reports that Tomochichi was age 97 at the time of his death seem to be greatly exaggerated, for when painted from life during his visit to London in 1735 he has the appearance of a much younger man. At some point (probably in the 1720s), Tomochichi and his band of followers were banished from the Lower Creek Indians. They then moved to a location on the banks of the Savannah River, which came to be known as Yamacraw Bluff.
It was here that James Oglethorpe requested permission from Tomochichi to locate Georgia's first settlement in 1733. Subsequently, they became close friends. On several occasions, Tomochichi assisted Oglethorpe in negotiating land cessions with Creek chiefs for the growing colony. In 1734, Tomochichi and other Yamacraws sailed with Oglethorpe for England, where they visited the Trustees and King George II. Tomochichi also was important in the Creeks' military assistance to the English colonists. After his death, Oglethorpe directed that his friend be buried in Percival Square in Savannah. In 1899, Georgia's Colonial Dames had a large granite stone and brass plaque placed in Wright Square (formerly Percival Square) to mark Tomichichi's grave site. Click here for the text of the plaque.
1864 The Battle of Allatoona Pass was fought marking the final engagement between Hood's retreating Confederate forces and Sherman's invading Union force. Confederate Gen. Samuel French led the attack on a small Union fort atop the mountain guarding the Western & Atlantic Railroad's tracks at Allatoona Pass.
Despite artillery bombardment and repeated charges, the Union forces held the fort. Casualties totaled 799 Confederate and 706 Union killed and wounded. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources has erected an interpretative marker shown here at the site of the battle, which is located near the edge of Lake Allatoona.
1881 The International Cotton Exposition, the first of three international fairs to be held in Atlanta to promote the city and the state, opened in Oglethorpe Park. It would continue through December 31.
1918 Four days after the initial breakout of two cases of Spanish influenza, Augusta's Camp Hancock reported 3,000 cases of the flu.
Already, 52 soldiers had died of the disease. Furthermore, the epidemic had now spread off base with 47 cases reported in the Augusta area.
1976 Campaigning in San Francisco on the eve of his second presidential debate, Jimmy Carter accused President Ford of being an "election year chameleon" by signing the 1976 Tax Reform Act after working all his political career to find "fat cat tax loopholes."
1991 After a last-place finish in 1990, the Atlanta Braves defeated the Houston Astros to clinch the western division title – a feat labeled "from worst to first." The pennant would be the first of fourteen consecutive division titles for the Braves, from 1991 through 2005 (excluding 1994, when the baseball strike eliminated post-season plan and pennants).
In 1991, the Braves would go on to the World Series and make major league baseball history by having gone from the worst record the year before to the World Series.
2001 The Georgia Supreme Court overturned use of the electric chair to execute prisoners sentenced to death.
In the case of Adams v. Georgia Department of Corrections, the court upheld a trial court's decision that death by electrocution was unconstitutional because it resulted in cruel and unusual punishment.
2001 Playing in Atlanta, the Atlanta Braves defeated the Florida Marlins by a score of 20-3. More importantly, the win gave the Braves their 10th consecutive division championship--a record for professional sports in the U.S.
2010 Atlanta Braves' pitcher Tim Hudson was named National League comeback player of the year. Hudson had ligament-replacement surgery in his elbow in late 2008, and only pitched a handful of games late in 2009, before coming on strong to lead the team the wild card spot in the playoffs in 2010. Hudson had a record of 17-9 with a 2.83 ERA.
Georgia towns and cities incorporated by acts approved on Oct. 5:
1891 Omaha (Stewart County)
Other acts affecting Georgia towns and cities approved on Oct. 5:
1885 Charter of DeSoto (Floyd County) repealed and its territory and residents annexed by the city of Rome.
In Their Own Words on This Day. . .
1739 From Savannah, James Oglethorpe wrote to the Trustees following his visit to the heart of the Creek Nation to renew alliances of friendship:
Source: John T. Juricek (ed.), Georgia Treaties, 1733-1763, Vol. XI in Alden T. Vaughan (ed.), Early American Indian Documents: Treaties and Laws, 1607-1789 (Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1989), pp. 98-99.
1779 Savannah merchant turned military leader Joseph Clay wrote to William Palfrey this day, describing their desperate lack of money and briefly detailing attempts to re-capture Savannah from the British:
Source: Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. VIII, Letters of Joseph Clay, Merchant of Savannah, 1776-1793 (Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1913), p. 149.
1864 Col. Fredrick Winkler of the 26th Wisconsin Infantry wrote his wife from occupied Atlanta:
For more, see This Week in Georgia Civil War History.
1868 At the end of the Civil War, the U.S. created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands (or Freedmen's Bureau) to assist and protect former slaves. From Athens, Howell C. Flournoy – who had openly expressed his Union sympathies during the Civil War – wrote to Gen. C.C. Sibley of the Freedmen's Bureau of his concerns about efforts by white Democrats to keep blacks from voting Republican in neighboring Jackson County:
Source: Mills Lane (ed.), Georgia: History written by Those who lived It (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1995), pp. 224-225.
1895 The Sunny South - a newspaper in Atlanta - carried the following advertisement for a supposed cure-all:
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