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1736 James Oglethorpe sailed from Georgia aboard the ship Two Brothers. He had been summoned by the Trustees to report in person on the following matters: neglect in keeping the Trustees informed on what was happening in Georgia, what was perceived by the Trustees as excessive spending by Oglethorpe, Georgia's relations with South Carolina, and the need to arm Georgia against a possible Spanish attack.
1816 Industrialist Andrew Perry Allgood was born in Laurens County, South Carolina. Allgood's family moved to the northwestern part of Georgia in 1837, and by 1840 he had established a successful general merchandise business--but Allgood had much larger plans. In 1847 he, his father-in-law, and a friend built the first cotton mill in northwest Georgia. Since the mill and adjacent town had a trio of founders, both were given the name Trion. Allgood was the first president of the Trion Manufacturing Company and remained in that position until his son took over in 1882. During the Civil War, the mill produced clothing for Confederate soldiers. Though it was destroyed by Sherman's invading army in 1864, Allgood continued to provide employment for his workers--and even aid to those left widowed or orphaned by the war. After the war, the mill was rebuilt--and yet again after it was destroyed by fire in 1875. Allgood remained in the small town he had helped create for the remainder of his life, being noted for many philanthropic deeds. He died in Trion on Sept. 8, 1882.
1846 The Augusta Canal system began operation. Conceived two years earlier as a way to to provide water power for manufacturing and thus aid Augusta's depressed economy, the canal system diverted water from the Savannah River seven miles north of Augusta. Because the city was situated on the Fall Line, the ground elevation was higher seven miles to the north. The thirteen-foot difference in elevations would cause the water in the canal to flow southward into Augusta with enough speed to power factory turbines. Water first flowed into the canal on Nov. 23, 1846 and Petersburg cotton boats quickly began using the canal. True to its intended purpose, the canal led to construction of the Augusta Factory – a cloth manufacturing firm – in 1847.
1863 The first of a series of battles collectively known as the Battle of Chattanooga (see timeline and narrative) was fought with Union troops storming Orchard Knob, driving the Confederates back and capturing 200 enlisted men and 9 officers.
This battle was fought a mile or so due west of downtown Chattanooga, and although this area lies in Tennessee, it was very close to the Georgia border. Also, Grant's victory at Chattanooga would have very definite consequences to Georgia, making possible Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. [Click here to view report of Union Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan on battle.]
For more, see This Week in Georgia Civil War History.
1864 Sherman and the 14th Corps rode into Milledgeville. There, they joined the 20th Corps uniting the eastern wing. He learned that 12 miles to the south, the western wing had arrived at Gordon. In his memoirs, Sherman later wrote, "The first stage of the journey was, therefore, complete, and absolutely successful."
Sherman used the Governor's Mansion as his quarters, while over in the state capitol, a number of Union officers held a mock convention in which Georgia's ordinance of secession was repealed. The railroad depot and several factories and warehouses were burned, though the state capitol was spared. In Milledgeville, Sherman also issued orders for the next leg of the March to the Sea: the right wing (15th and 17th Corps) would follow by roads the path of the Savannah Railroad, while the left wing (14th and 20th Corps) would march to Sandersville, with the cavalry to proceed to the Confederate prison known as Camp Lawton just north of Millen to release Union prisoners confined there.
Sherman didn't know that Confederate authorities were anticipating this action and had abandoned Camp Lawton on November 17, moving Union prisoners to other locations.
For more, see This Week in Georgia Civil War History.
1945 Newspaper publisher and editor William Thomas Anderson died in his hometown of Macon. Born in rural Haynesville, Ga. on Aug. 21, 1871, Anderson early showed a proclivity for the newspaper business, beginning work at age nine as an assistant to the printer of a small paper in Hawkinsville. By the time he was sixteen, he and his brother were working for the Macon Telegraph. After spending a brief time in New York, the Anderson brothers returned to the Macon Telegraph for good. W.T., as he was called, quickly moved up the ladder into management, first as foreman, then superintendent, then to general manger in 1908. When the paper's owner died in 1914, Anderson and his brothers secured a controlling interest in the newspaper, which they would retain (except for a brief interval from 1939-1942) for the rest of Anderson's life. While his brother oversaw the business and technical aspects of the paper, W.T. concentrated on news writing, reporting, and especially editorials.
Anderson was a very independent thinker for his times, and he often stood his ground even when threatened with violence. He did not support the latter stages of the New Deal, even though he was a personal friend of Franklin Roosevelt and had helped raise funds for construction of the Warm Springs rehabilitation facilities for polio victims. Anderson even dared criticize the Ku Klux Klan at the height of its power in the 1920s and '30s. His editorials called for equal justice and educational opportunities for blacks, even after his life had been threatened and crosses burned on his lawn. No shrinking violet, he warned in his editorials that he traveled armed. Anderson even had a special section of the Macon Telegraph published by blacks specifically for blacks. Politically, Anderson was not tied by party affiliation and supported whomever he thought to be the best candidate. He lived a lively social life, belonging to many clubs and active in many civic projects. He remained active until his death.
1979 A wagon train consisting of 75 wagons plus hundreds of riders pulled out of Dahlonega bearing 60 ounces of gold to be used in regilding the gold dome of the Georgia state capitol. The journey to Atlanta would follow the same course by a smaller wagon train in 1958 bearing the gold used to gild the dome in 1959. Since that time, exposure and hail had damaged the gilding, so that much of it was missing. Thus was launched the "Make Georgia a Shining Example" project to take a wagon train through the state visiting all former capitals to raise money to regild the weathered dome.
1991 Evander Holyfield retained his world heavyweight boxing title by knocking out Bert Cooper in the seventh round.
1998 In an effort to improve their hitting, the Atlanta Braves signed St. Louis Cardinal right fielder Brian Jordan to a 5-year, $40 million contract. In his 1998 season with the Cardinals, Jordan hit .316, with 25 home runs and 91 RBIs.
Georgia cities and towns incorporated by acts approved on Nov. 23:
1859 Ellaville (Schley County)
In Their Own Words on This Day. . .
1864 After fighting the Battle of Griswoldville the day before, the 1st Division of the Georgia Militia retreated to their defensive breastworks near Macon. From here, Felix Pryor wrote his wife about the battle:
Source: Mills Lane (ed.), "Dear Mother: Don't grieve about me. If I get killed, I'll only be dead.": Letters from Georgia Soldiers in the Civil War (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1990), p. 335-336.
1864 From Milledgeville, Sherman issued Special Field Order 127 outlining the assignments and objectives for the second phase of the March to the Sea. The order also dealt with foraging, with severe penalties outlined where citizens in their path tried to deprive Union forces by destroying bridges and forage:
Source: U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1893, reprinted by The National Historical Society, 1971), Series I, Vol. XLIV, p. 527.
1864 From Milledgeville, Col. Fredrick Winkler of the 26th Wisconsin Infantry wrote to his wife:
1865 John Banks of Columbus, Ga. had seven sons who fought for the Confederacy. Unfortunately, three were killed during Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. One of these – Eugene – had been killed in battle at Resaca and buried in the field. Eighteen months later, the remains of Eugene were found and carried back to Columbus, where he was buried with his brothers in the Banks' family plot, as noted in the final entry of John Banks' journal:
Source: John Banks, Autobiography of John Banks, 1797 - 1870 (Austell, Ga.: privately printed by Elberta Leonard, 1936), p. 38.
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