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1829 Confederate general William Robertson Boggs was born in Augusta, Georgia. He graduated from West Point in 1853, after which he performed engineering and ordnance duties in the U.S. Army.
After Georgia's secession, Boggs resigned his U.S. commission. In Feb.1861, he was designated Chief Engineer of Georgia. Soon afterwards, he was named captain of ordnance under Confed. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard at Charleston. Subsequently, Boggs performed engineering duties in Florida and Georgia. In Nov. 1862, he was promoted to brigadier general and served as Gen. Kirby Smith's chief of staff in the Confederate Army's Trans-Mississippi Department. After the war, Boggs returned to Georgia to practice civil engineering. From 1875-1881 he taught mechanics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
Boggs died on Sept. 11, 1911 in Winston-Salem, N.C.
1831 In the case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, filed by the Cherokees in the U.S. Supreme Court to protest efforts by Georgia to claim sovereignty over them, the high court ruled that the Cherokees were not a foreign nation as defined by the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, the U.S. Supreme Court – though sympathetic with their situation – could not exercise original jurisdiction over the Cherokees' lawsuit.
1865 At the Confederate Capitol in Richmond, the Congress of the Confederate States of American held its last session and then adjourned for the final time.
For more, see This Week in Georgia Civil War History.
1939 Georgia ratified the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution (commonly known as the Bill of Rights). The ten amendments had been proposed by the U.S. Congress in 1789. Nine states ratified the amendments shortly thereafter, but Georgia and Connecticut declined to ratify on the grounds that the amendments were unnecessary. Massachusetts had adopted most of the amendments but overlooked sending formal notice to the U.S. Secretary of State. The twelfth state, Virginia delayed a formal vote. In 1791, Vermont entered the Union and that November ratified the Bill of Rights. This gave ratification by ten states. In December 1791, Virginia became the eleventh state to ratify the ten amendments, meaning the Bill of Rights was now official.
In 1939, Georgia, Connecticut, and Massachusetts marked the 150th anniversary of the Bill of Rights by officially ratifying the first ten amendments. In Georgia, the second house of the General Assembly adoped a joint resolution ratifying the Bill of Rights on March 18, 1939. Under Georgia law, however, bills and joint resolutions intended to have the effect of law must be sent to the governor for final approval. The governor can sign, veto, or take no action (in which event the measure automatically becomes law after the passage of a designated length of time). Gov. E.D. Rivers signed the joint resolution on March 24, 1939 (see entry), which under Georgia law is considered the official date of Georgia's ratification of the Bill of Rights. However, federal courts have held that the U.S. Constitution requires that proposed amendments be ratified by the legislatures or by special conventions of the people in three-fourths of the states. According to court decisions, any additional stipulations under state law for approval by the governor or certification by the state's secretary of state are not controlling in determining ratification. Rather, the date that the second house of a bicameral state legislature ratifies the amendment is considered the date of that state's official ratification.
To read the text of each amendment in the Bill of Rights as well as an analysis that includes major U.S. Supreme Court decisions interpreting the amendment, click on the following:
1947 After learning of the Georgia Supreme Court's ruling (which would be made public the next day), Herman Talmadge gave up the governor's office.
Though the Supreme Court's official decision would not be released until the following day, Talmadge's action ended Georgia's "Three Governors Affair," a period where three different men – Ellis Arnall, Melvin Thompson, and Herman Talmadge – had each claimed to be rightful governor of Georgia.
1953 The Boston Braves announced that the franchise would be moving to Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1955 Meeting in Atlanta, the Georgia Educators Association announced its support of "equal but separate schools."
1963 In the case of Gray v. Sanders involving use of the county unit system to determine election results in the Georgia Democratic Primary, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that in Georgia the Democratic Primary was essentially a state election. It further struck use of the county unit system and established the famous "one person, one vote" standard for election districts – which meant that no person's vote in one district can count more than any other person's vote in any similar other district.
[To view Georgia's other state symbols, click here.]
2012 Former Atlanta Journal-Constitution sports editor and columnist Furman Bisher died from a heart attack.
2012 Writer Harry Crews, born in Bacon County, Georgia, died in Gainesville, FL.
In Their Own Words on This Day. . .
1861 After having attended the Provisional Confederate Congress in Montgomery, Ala. with her husband, Mary Boykin Chesnut wrote in her diary from Augusta while returning to South Carolina:
Source: C. Vann Woodward and Elisabeth Muhlenfeld, eds., The Private Mary Chesnut: The Unpublished Civil War Diaries [New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984], pp. 30-33.
For more, see This Week in Georgia Civil War History.
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