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1818 On the west bank of the Ocmulgee River in what today is Wilcox County, 34 members members of the Telfair County Militia engaged about 60 Creek Indians in the Battle of Breakfast Branch.
The battle occurred in an area ceded to Georgia less than two months earlier in the Treaty of the Creek Agency. Four Creeks and five militia members were killed in what proved to be the last battle between Creeks and whites in the area.
1866 Gov. Charles Jones Jenkins signed two acts of the General Assembly relative to "persons of color."
1931 Atlanta native and civil rights leader Walter F. White was named executive secretary of the NAACP.
1945 Gov. Ellis Arnall signed a joint resolution of the General Assembly proposing a new state constitution for Georgia. In a special election held on Aug. 7, 1945, Georgia voters approved what would be known as the Constitution of 1945 (although technically the entire new constitution was adopted as a single amendment to the Constitution of 1877).
1945 Gov. Ellis Arnall signed legislation creating the Georgia Ports Authority with power to finance, build, and operate seaports along Georgia's coast. The authority's first project would be to expand the port facilities at Savannah.
1945 Gov. Ellis Arnall signed a joint resolution of the General Assembly stating the legislature's "continuing sympathy with the movement to abolish all measures restricting Jewish immigration into Palestine, so that all seeking a new life of freedom and dignity after this war, may settle on the soil of the ancestral homeland with a view of developing it as a free and democratic Jewish Commonwealth."
1956 Gov. Marvin Griffin signed a second series of bills and resolutions that were part of his "massive resistance" package of legislation at the 1956 session of the General Assembly.
Griffin was angry over the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 and 1955 decisions in the case of Brown v. Board of Education and was determined that integration would not take place in Georgia's public schools. Measures that he signed on this day included:
1956 Gov. Marvin Griffin signed S.R. 30, a joint resolution of the General Assembly creating the All-South Centennial Committee. Although the resolution does not directly mention the Civil War, it does note that the purpose of the committee is to plan for the centennial of the dates 1861-1865, which the resolution describes as "one of the most momentous period in American history." [Click here to read text of resolution.] Interestingly, S.R. 30 was not one of the bills in Griffin's legislative package. Also, several of the authors of S.R. 30 were also sponsors of the 1956 bill changing Georgia's state flag.
1960 Led by Julian Bond and Lonnie King, a group of Atlanta black students known as the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights published "An Appeal for Human Rights" in Atlanta newspapers. The appeal, critical of both white and black leaders, was in response to white reaction to the first "sit-in" that had occurred days before in Greensboro, N.C.
1970 Gov. Lester Maddox signed an act setting Georgia's minimum wage at $1.25 per hour.
Exempted from this minimum were: (a) employers with annual sales of not more than $40,000, or who had 5 or fewer employees; (b) employees who were paid in part or whole by gratuities; (c) employees who were students in high school or college; and (d) newspaper carriers.
In Their Own Words on This Day. . .
1871 Once again, the financial failures of her husband caused humiliation for Gertrude Thomas; not only her but other family members were involved, furthering her feelings of despair:
Source: Virginia Ingraham Burr (ed.), The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848-1889 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990), pp. 362-363.
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