TDGH - February 18
This Day in Georgia History
Ed Jackson and Charles Pou
The University of Georgia
1733 Because of the switch from the Julian to Gregorian calendar, events of this day are listed under the February 7, 1733 entry, along with an explanation of the calendar change.
1780 Stephen Heard took office
as president of the patriot government's Executive Council -- an office equivalent
to that of governor after the Revolution.
1833 Confederate general
James Deshler was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
After graduating from West
Point in 1854, Deshler served cavalry duty in the West. In 1861, he resigned
his U.S. Army commission to become an artillery captain and later colonel
in Confederate service. In July 1863, Deshler was promoted to brigadier
general and given command of his own brigade in Cleburne's Division. He
was killed in the Battle of Chickamauga on Sept. 20, 1863.
1854 Gov. Herschel Johnson signed legislation establishing Charlton
County as Georgia's 111th county.
Created from portions of Camden
County, the new county was named for Georgia U.S. Senator Robert M. Charlton of Savannah. Charlton, who served two years (1852-53), had been elected by
the legislature to fill the seat of John Berrien, who resigned in 1852.
1861 In Montgomery, Ala.,
Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens were inaugurated as provisional president
and vice president of the Confederate States of America.
For more, see This Week in Georgia Civil War History.
1862 In Richmond, Va., Georgia's
delegation to the First Confederate Congress was sworn into office. Representing
Georgia's ten congressional districts were: Julian Hartridge (1st), Charles
J. Munnerlyn (2nd), Hines Holt (3rd), Augustus Kenan (4th), David Lewis (5th),
William Clarke (6th), Robert Trippe (7th), Lucius Gartrell (8th), Hardy Strickland (9th), and Augustus Wright (10th).
1879 Confederate general
Robert Hall Chilton died in Columbus, Ga. Born Feb. 25, 1815 in Loudoun
City, Va., he graduated from West Point in 1837. During the Mexican War,
Chilton was a captain of Dragoons, later serving as a paymaster. He resigned
from the U.S. Army in 1861 and was given the rank of lieutenant colonel
in the Confederate Army's Adjutant and Inspector General's Department.
served as Robert E. Lee's chief of staff and given the temporary rank
of brigadier general (confirmed in Feb. 1864). After the war, Chilton became
involved in manufacturing.
1937 Former Gov. Lamartine
Hardman died in Atlanta. [Some sources cite Feb. 19.] Born in Harmony Grove (now Commerce),
Georgia, Hardman began his career in the field of medicine, where he was innovative
in further developing the field of anesthesiology begun by fellow-Georgian
Crawford Long. Hardman was also a very successful businessman, owning cotton
and roller mills, a bank, a drug company, and founding the Commerce Telephone
Company. Hardman was first elected to the Georgia legislature in
1902. He served as both a representative and senator over the course of the
next ten years, primarily sponsoring agricultural legislation. He also introduced
the bill creating a state board of health, and wrote Georgia's prohibition
statute. After serving in the General Assembly, Hardman served as Georgia's
fuel administrator during World War I and also directed the Georgia Experiment
Station in Griffin.
In 1926, Hardman was elected governor after two unsuccessful
attempts. He won reelection despite being seventy-six years old and in ill
health. His terms as governor were noted primarily for promoting business-like
efficiency in government through appointment of the Commission on Simplification
and Coordination, headed by Ivan Allen, Sr.
1960 Gov. Ernest Vandiver signed legislation making it unlawful to refuse to leave a business upon request
by the owner or manager of such establishment. The General Assembly enacted
the law in response to the growing wave of sit-ins in the civil rights movement.
1960 Future University of
Georgia head football coach Mark Richt was born in Boca Raton, Florida.
1984 Joe Bennett, Jimmy Carnes,
George Griffin, Roger Kaiser, Oscar Keller, Mel Pender, and Bill Stanfill were inducted into the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame.
1989 Danny Birchmore, Joe
Geri, Jimmy Hightower, Wallace Moses, Randy Rhino, Ken Rice, and L.W. (Chip)
Robert Jr., were inducted into the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame.
Georgia cities and towns first incorporated by acts
approved by the governor on Feb. 18:
1854 Palmetto (then Campbell,
now Fulton County), Swainsboro (Emanuel County), and Vienna
In Their Own Words on This Day. . .
1732 In London, John Percival,
James Oglethorpe, and other supporters of a new colony in America to the south
of South Carolina were frustrated that their charter was still unsigned, as
noted in the entry in Percival's diary:
". . . Perceiving an unaccountable delay in the putting
his Majesty's seal to the Carolina Charter, and that it sticks with the
Duke of Newcastle, all our gentlemen concerned as trustees are much out
of humour and some are for flinging it up, and restoring the money arising
from the lottery tickets which were given up to tell for the advantage of
the colony. I told my mind freely to Horace Walpole, sitting by him this
morning, that we thought ourselves ill used, and that if it was expected
by the Government that we should entreat any more the passing this charter,
he was mistaken, for it is a matter we think they ought to entreat us to
undertake; that being restrained at our own desire by oath from making any
advantage directly or indirectly of the charter, this delay must be the
highest reflection on us as if we did not intend to regard our oaths,
for this delay cannot possibly be given but from a suspicion we should
abuse our trust. If, therefore, he did not think it a good thing, I desired
he would tell us, and we would quit it. He replied, he thought it a good
thing . . . .
"Soon after, Mr. Oglethorp came to me, and said that
upon his complaining to Drummond of the usage, Drummond replied Sir Robert
was very hearty for the charter, but that it happened the day before we
waited on the Duke of Newcastle to desire he would forward the King's signing
the charter, his Grace had carried the charter in a bag with five other
things for his Majesty to sign, but that the King not being in right humour,
refused to sign any one of them . . . ."
Source: U.K. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Diary
of the First Earl of Egmont (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office,
1923), Vol. I, p. 223.
1739 George Whitefield's
journal entry for this day shows his dedication to his calling, James Oglethorpe's
willingness to help the church, and the beginnings of the Bethesda orphanage
Whitfield helped establish in Georgia:
"Rose this morning by one O'Clock. Took boat in order
to go to St. Andrew's; but the Rudder breaking, we were obliged to return
back and desist from our intended Voyage. Went to Bed and slept for a few
Hours. Spent a good Part of the Day with the General. Received from him
a Bill of Exchange for 150 pounds which he advanced me in order to begin
a Church at Savannah. About seven O'Clock set off for Darien, whither I
promised to return, to take Mr. Macleod and the Orphans with me to Savannah.
The Passage to that Place is generally about four Hours: But the Wind
being high and contrary, we were obliged to come to a Grapling, near an
open Reach, and did not get to Darien the next day at noon. Mr. Macleod
and his Friends received us with Joy, and finding me ill, advised me to
lie down; by which I was much refreshed, was was thereby enabled at Night
to give God Thanks in Family Prayer."
Source: [No author or editor cited], Our First Visit
in America: Early Reports from the Colony of Georgia, 1732-1740 (Savannah:
Beehive Press, 1974), pp. 300-301.
1793 A frequent problem on
Georgia's frontier occurred when whites would either settle or graze their
cattle on Indian lands, as in this case noted by Timothy Barnard at Buzzard
Roost in a letter to Maj. Henry Gaither:
". . . I have certain information that the inhabitants
of the upper frontiers have drove over a number of cattle into the fork
of the Tallapatche, which ground the Indians look upon as theirs. Therefore
[they] are determined to go down and drive off all the stock they can find
and, if they meete with any opposition, will kill those that oppose them,
as you may be sure there will be a body large enough to execute their
designs. I have prevailed on the head men to restrain them for twenty days
and am setting off to the towns to do the same there and am in hopes they
will be stopped that long till the people can get their cattle back. But
there is a great probability that the hunters in the woods may collect and
endeavor to drive them off. If so, these people that have put their cattle
over must abide by the consequence, as they have no right to carry on
such irregular proceedings. I am amazed at the headds of the country, that
they will not opposed such measures at this critical junction. There is
now ten Indians from the Northward Nations trying all they can to set the
Creeks on the frontiers of Georgia and such proceedings as they will be
the effectual means to make the Creeks take their talks, besides ever putting
it out of the power of any person to have a boundary line. . . .
". . .I can assure you if those cattle are not removed
and soon the owners will lose them all and some of their lives, too. It
is vain to strive to keep the peace when the white people go so headlone
to work before the boundary line is settled."
Source: Edward J. Cashin, A Wilderness Still The Cradle
of Nature: Frontier Georgia (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1994), pp. 80-81.
1797 While making a tour
of the Creek Indian towns, Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins met a chief who gave
him a description of the Okefenokee Swamp land:
". . . This part of the country is sometimes so infested
with musquetoes as to destroy horses, by runing and heating of them, when
water is not to be had for them, but by getting it out of aligator holes
for them. He had seen most of the border of the Okefinacau, and once attempted
with some young lads to pursue a bear he had wounded; they went in several
hours, and were compelled to return. The whole earth trembled under them,
and at several places, where the surface was pressed with the foot, the
water would spout out. One of his lads sunk in so deep that he called for
help, and they took him out. There are some large cypress, but the growth
mostly dwarf. Some of the Tallassee people had been in much farther than
he had; they saw some ponds, many aligators, turtles and snakes, particularly
a small snake with a button at the end of a tail like the rattlesnake;
they saw considerable number of them, and some times 20 or 30 in one
view, coiled up on the small grassy nobs; two of these people were killed
by the bites of them. He knew of one man who attempted a settlement near
this swamp, but he gave it up because the tygers killed his hogs, cattle
and sometimes horses."
Source: Collections of the Georgia Historical Society,
Vol. IX, Letters of Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1806 (Savannah: Georgia
Historical Society, 1916), p. 86.
1839 Two days after moving
from Butler Island to St. Simons Island, Fanny Kemble Butler noted a dramatic
difference in the number of mulattos -- even though the two islands were within
ten miles of each other. Her husband, Pierce Butler, gave an explanation,
which left her feeling uncomfortable:
". . . I observed, among the numerous groups that we
passed or met, a much larger proportion of mulattoes than at the rice island
[Butler Island]; upon asking Mr. [a reference to here husband] why this
was so, he said that there no white person could land without his or the
overseer's permission, whereas on St. Simons, which is large island containing
several plantations belong to different owners, of course the number of
whites, both residing on and visiting the place, was much greater, and
the opportunity for intercourse between the blacks and whites much more
frequent. While we were still on this subject, a horrid-looking filthy woman
met us with a little child in her arms, a very light mulatto, whose extraordinary
resemblance to driver Bran (one of the officials who had been duly presented
to me on my arrival, and who was himself a mulatto) struck me directly.
I pointed it out to Mr.[Butler], who merely answered: 'Very likely his
"'And,' said I, ' did you never remark that driver
Bran is the exact image of Mr. K [Butler's overseer Roswell King]?'
"'Very likely his brother,' was the reply; all which
rather unpleasant state of relationships seemed accepted as such a complete
matter of course, that I felt rather uncomfortable, and said no more about
who was like who, but came to certain conclusions in my own mind as to a
young lad who had been among our morning visitors, and whose extremely light
color and straight, handsome features and striking resemblance to Mr. K[ing]
had suggested suspicions of a rather unpleasant nature to me, and whose
sole acknowledged parent was a very black Negress of the name of Minda.
I have no doubt at all, now, that he is another son of Mr. K[ing], Mr.
[Butler]'s paragon overseer. . . ."
Source: John A. Scott, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian
Plantation in 1838-1839 by Frances Anne Kemble (Athens: University of
Georgia Press, 1984), p. 201.
1863 From Vicksburg, Confederate
soldier William Chunn wrote to his wife back in Georgia:
"It has been raining almost incessantly for four days
and nights, making it quite impossible to walk anywhere on foot. The roads
are in a wretched condition, and it is with difficulty we can transport
our supplies from the city which is only a mile distant. . . The soldier
is now truly drinking the bitter dregs of war. But notwithstanding the hardships,
you would be surprised what degree of endurance they display and the
cheerfulness they exhibit. Never in the annals of history was thee recorded
such deeds of noble daring, such heroism and such disinterested patriotism.
I think the Confederate soldier has proven to the world that he is eminently
worthy to wear the laurel of victory and enjoy in peace the dear old hearthstones
and the society of those loved ones that at nightfall cluster around
its cheerful firelight.
"Although it has seemingly been clearly demonstrated
that we are worthy of liberty and peace, how backward are foreign nations
to recognize the fact. Yet we find nations, like individuals, loath to extend
a helping or sympathetic hand, unless it is to their pecuniary interest
to do so. It is money that controls the human heart! It is to the 'shining
God' that man bows a willing suppliant. The theory of recognition and foreign
intervention has long ago been exploded, and I must confess that I am
not sorry of it, for that fatal delusion will no longer deceive us. We are
now thoroughly convinced that the only hope of peace is in our prayers to
the Almighty God and the proper use of our own stalwart arms. . . ."
Source: Mills Lane (ed.), "Dear Mother: Don't grieve
about me. If I get killed, I'll only be dead.": Letters from Georgia Soldiers
in the Civil War (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1990), p. 222.
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