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1790 The first U.S. census was reported. Out of a national population of 3,929,214 (3,172,006 white and 757,208 black), Georgia has a total population of 82,548 (52,886 white and 29,662 black).
Boudinot had begun to feel the inevitability of Cherokee removal to the West, but principal chief John Ross and a majority of the Cherokees opposed leaving their homeland. Because Ross felt that the Phoenix was the official organ of the Cherokee Nation, he would not allow Boudinot to discuss arguments for and against voluntary removal in the newspaper – so Boudinot resigned.
1866 Cherokee chief John Ross died in Washington, D.C. Born in Turkey Town in the Cherokee Nation, Ross was only one-eighth Cherokee. By the early 1800s, he had established a ferry and warehouse business on the Tennessee River known as Ross's Landing (site of present-day Chattanooga). In the 1820s, Ross moved to Head of Coosa, the point marking the confluence of the Etowah and Oostanaula rivers which later became Rome, Georgia.
In 1828, Ross was elected principal chief of the Cherokees, in which capacity he unsuccessfully fought efforts by the federal government and Georgia to move the Cherokees from their homeland to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. During the Civil War, he and his family moved to Washington, D.C., where they were living at the time of his death.
1895 Black educator and civil rights advocate Benjamin Mays was born in rural South Carolina, son of former slaves turned tenant farmers. Committed to the importance of education, Mays attended several colleges before obtaining his doctorate from the University of Chicago in 1935. A year late, he became president of Morehouse College. At age 72, he became the first black president of the Atlanta Board of Education, a position he held for 12 years. During his life, he received 49 honorary doctorate degrees.
1913 During the fifth day of the trial of Leo Frank, Dr. Roy Harris, who had examined Mary Phagan's body, testified that she had died within an hour of eating her last meal of cabbage and bread – meaning she died sometime in the hour between twelve and one o'clock. He also said the head wounds were caused by a human fist. After suffering a fainting spell, Dr. Harris had to leave the stand before completing his testimony. Assistant factory superintendent N.V. Darley said Frank was nervous the day of the murder, but that this wasn't unusual. Darley said he had seen Frank talking to Gantt and assumed this accounted for his nervousness. Darley's testimony was marked by more bitter clashes between prosecutor Dorsey and defense attorney Rosser. Maggie White, wife of one of the machinists working at the factory April 26th, testified she went to the factory twice that day to visit her husband. She had seen Leo Frank both times, the second time around 12:30 in his office. He had his back turned to her and was startled when she walked in, but then told her it was fine to go see her husband. She said she left shortly before 1:00 and saw a Negro hiding behind some boxes on the first floor. Click here for a detailed accounting of the case.
1953 Blues singer, guitarist, and song writer Robert Cray was born in Columbus, Georgia. Cray would win a 1987 Grammy Award.
1961 Inducted into the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame were George Gardner, Thomas Greene Jr., William Hunnicutt, Thomas Paris, Dr. Alfred Scott, and Kimsey Stewart.
1982 Former Atlanta Braves slugger Hank Aaron was inducted in the Major League Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, N.Y. Aaron came nine votes shy of being elected unanimously – the third highest percentage of votes, only surpassed by Ty Cobb and Tom Seaver.
1996 This was the fourteenth day of the 1996 Summer Olympics – and day 13 of Olympic competition.
On this day, U.S. gold medal winners were Derrick Adkins in men's 400-meter hurdles, Justin Huish in men's individual archery, Michael Johnson in men's 200 meters, Dan O'Brien in men's decathlon, and Tom Brands in men's featherweight freestyle wrestling. Click here for a summary of medals awarded during the 1996 Atlanta Olympics.
Also on this day, the final round of women's soccer was played in Sanford Stadium on the University of Georgia campus in Athens, with the U.S. defeating China for the gold medal.
Georgia cities and towns incorporated by acts approved on Aug. 1:
1904 Matthews (Jefferson County)
1906 Mullis (Laurens County)
1912 Bridgeboro (Worth County) and Howell (Echols County)
In Their Own Words on This Day. . .
Source: U.K. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Diary of the First Earl of Egmont (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1923), Vol. II, pp. 119-120.
Source: George Fenwick Jones and Don Savelle (ed. and trans.), Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America . . . Edited by Samuel Urlsperger (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983), Vol. 7, pp. 203-204.
1870 For a variety of reasons, financial problems beset many families in Georgia during Reconstruction. From Richmond County, Gertrude Thomas recorded in her diary the sadness and humiliation of losing their property, which she attributes in part to her husband's poor handling of their financial affairs:
Source: Virginia Ingraham Burr (ed.), The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848-1889 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990), pp. 333-334.
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